Publications & tools

Guidance document

The circular bio-waste management handbook for local authorities

Bio-waste, constituted by food and garden waste, makes up from 30% to 50% of municipal solid waste generated in Europe. Disposal of bio-waste poses a challenge for the environment, as fermentation of organic matter generates greenhouse gases emissions as well as harmful substances. Additional negative impacts are also caused at earlier lifecycle stages, especially for food waste, which represents more than half of bio-waste. With food production being a major driver of the Earth system exceeding planetary boundaries, especially biosphere integrity and biogeochemical flows, land-system change and freshwater use, climate change… to name a few. There is therefore a need to move away from the current “take-make-waste” approach, towards a circular system that would help us stay within planetary boundaries.

To make circularity a reality, local authorities must implement solutions and measures to slow, narrow and close biological cycles, just as Apeldoorn, Mikkeli, Porto and Seville did within CityLoops. This handbook must be seen as an entry point for understanding and getting involved into a complex waste stream. 

  • Apeldoorn (The Netherlands)
  • Mikkeli (Finland)
  • Porto (Portugal)
  • Sevilla (Spain)